Menu- Classical French Menu

MENU
Introduction:
Menu is a range of food and beverage items offered in a food service outlet. In French, menu means “in minute detail” and in English it is also termed as “bill of fare”. It is believed that the term ‘menu’ was first used in 1541, when Duke Henry of Brunswick was seen referring to a sheet of paper during a feast. On being asked what he was referring to, he replied that it was a kind of programme of dishes and by consulting it he could reserve his appetite for the dishes he liked the best. Menu was first introduced in Banquets for guests to know what are the dishes that will be served.
Importance of Menu
• The menu can stimulate sales the way it is written and presented.
• The menu is marketing in action. (a great silent sales person)
• The menu card represents the signature of the restaurant. Therefore, it has to be attractive, informative and gastronomically correct.
• It promotes the image of the property.
The menu is based upon all managerial and operational activities of the food and beverage operations.
CATEGORIES OF MENU BY TIME
1. A CLASSICAL MENU
2. A MODERN MENU
A CLASSICAL MENU:
A food service professional must know the sequence in which the classical menu was presented. A classical menu is a definitive standard of menu created by the French. It helps to understand other menus better. The French are credited for making gastronomy as a fine art and have set the lead in classical cuisine for generations. Guests enjoyed the creations of the masters.
The two great chefs of the history of gastronomy and creators of “la- grande cuisine” are said to be
1. Marie-Antoine Careme (1784-1833) who was a French chef and an early practitioner and exponent of the elaborate style of cooking known as grande cuisine, the “high art” of French Cooking: a grandiose style of cookery.
2. Georges Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935) who standardized food service for quality and efficiency. Escoffier later along with Cesar Ritz developed a new menu concept “ Prix Fixe” which means “ A meal consisting of several courses served at a total fixed price”.

French Classical Menu
A thorough knowledge of the sequence of French classical courses, their examples and product knowledge is essential for Food service professionals to compile a well balanced menu and to extent good service to guests.

The below chart is a sequential 17 course French menu, I tried to give French pronunciation in English for F&B service Beginners.
SL NO. FRENCH TERM (PRONUNCIATION) MEANING
1. Hors d’ oeuvre (Ha doew……r )Appetizer
2. Potage (Potaaj..u) Soup
3. Oeufs (Ooe-ff )Eggs
4. Farineux (Fahrnee) Pastas
5. Poisson (Poise- o) Fish
6. Entrée (An-threy) Entree
7. Relevé (Relev )Joint
8. Sorbet (Sau..bay) Sorbet
9. Rôti (Rothee) Roast
10. Légumes (Legumes) Vegetables
11. Salade (Salad) Salad
12. Buffet froid (Bufe fuva) Cold buffet
13. Entremets (anthramay) Sweets
14. Fromage (Fomazz) Cheese
15. Savoureux (Savour) Savoury
16. Dessert (Dezzert) Fruits and nuts
17. Beverage (Beverage) Beverages

MODERN MENU
In the Modern contest, guests do not have much time to dine, nor will the health conscious generation allow themselves to overeat, so the menu has been reduced to six courses.
• Appetiser
• Soup
• Salad
• Main course
• Vegetables
• Dessert

17 Course French Classical Menu with Description and Examples

1. Hors d’ oeuvre / Appetizer/ Starter :
These dishes are tangy, salty nature and are served in small portions in order to stimulate the appetite for the future courses to come.

Hors d’ oeuvres are divided in to two types :
a. Classical hors d’oeuvres : These are very expensive and each has a unique standard of service, that means, unique set of cutlery to eat, own set of accompaniments.

Non-vegetarian classical hors d’oeuvres:
a) Caviar. In French it is referred to as “caviare”.
b) Smoked salmon. In French it is referred to as “Saumon fume”.
c) Oysters. In French called “Les huitre”
d) Goose liver ¬- Pate de foie gras.
e) Shell fish cocktail.
Vegetarian:
a) Grapefruit cocktail In French it is called “Cocktail de pamplemousse”
b) Tomato juice. In French called “Juice de tomate”
c) Asparagus. In French referred to as “asperges”
d) Corn on the cob. In French referred to as “Mais naturel”
e) Chilled melon. In French it is referred to as “Melon frappe”
Hors d’oeuvre varies : They are not as expensive as classical hors d’oeuvres. They normally comprise tangy titbits prepared from leftovers from other main meat., fish, poultry and vegetable preparations. When they are served they are served in combination with other hors d’oeuvres, hence referred to as horsd’oeuvre varies. When they are served to the guest they are often presented in a trolley or a tray.
2. Potage / Soup :
It is a liquid food, In absence of appetizer in the menu, soup assumes the role of appetizer.
Soups can be classified into two broad categories.
They are :-
A. Thick soups : Thick soups are further subdivided basing upon the kind of thickening agent used.
a. Cream soup – Cream soup is characterized by the presence of Bechamel sauce is the thickening agent.

Examples are :
• Cream of Tomato soup
• Cream of Mushroom soup
• Cream of Spinach soup
b. PUREE SOUP : This category of soup is thickened by the starch content of the vegetable itself.
Examples are :
• Puree of Avocado Soup
• Puree Albert
• Puree Celery
c. VELOUTE SOUP: This category of soup is made by cooking cut meat or vegetables in Veloute sauce.
Examples are :
• Asparagus Veloute soup
• Mushrom Veloute soup
• Chicken Veloute soup
d. BISQUE: This category of soup is made with pureed shellfish and cream .
Examples are :
• Shrimp bisque – Bisque de cervettes
• Lobster bisque – Bisque d’homard
• Calamar bisque – Bisque of squid.
B. Thin soups : These are clear soups.
Examples are :
• Consomme Royal
• Consomme Celestine.

3. Oeuf / Egg :
All types of egg preparations expect plain boiled and fried egg.
Examples are :
• Omelette espagnole – Flat omelette with onions, peppers and tomatoes
• Omelette aux tomates : – tomato omelette
• Omlette aux champignons : – mushroom omelette
• Oeuf poche florentine : – poached egg on a bed of spinach coated with cheese sauce & gratinated
• Oeuf brouille au lard : – scrambled egg with bacon.
4. Farinaceous / Farineaux / Pasta or Rice :
It is served as preliminary course. Pasta course include different types of rice and pasta. Pastas are more than 200 varieties. E.g : spaghetti, macaroni, noodles, ravioli, etc..
Examples are :
• Spaghetti napolitine – spaghetti in a tomato- and garlic- flavoured sauce.
• Ravioli : – noodle type pasta filled with a variety of stuffing, such as chicken, beef, and spinach
• Spaghetti bolognaise – spaghetti blended with minced lean beef with rich brown sauce.
5. Poisson / Fish :
All types of fish preparations.
Examples are :
• Grilled salmon with lemon butter
• Fried fish in tar tare sauce
• Lobster Americaine.

6. Entrée / Entree :
This course is said to be an entry to a meat course. This course comprises small pieces of meat, which are served with a sauce or gravy.
Examples are :
• Irish stew
• Steak diane
• Steak tartare
• Chicken chasseur
7. Releve / Joints :
Joints of meat (lamb, mutton, beef, veal, pork). They are served with their own accompanying sauce and accompanying vegetables.
Examples are :
• Grilled Lamb Chops
• Braised saddle of mutton
• Roast sirloin of beef
• Dry Pork chops
8. Sorbet / Sorbet :
It is the interval course and taken after the releve to provide some kind of an interval before the roast is served. During this course Russian cigars are offered. Approximately 10 minutes is given before the next course.
Examples are :
• Spoom (It is a type of frothy sorbet made with a lighter sugar syrup than that required for a true sorbet. As it begins to set, it is mixed with half its volume of Italian meringue)
• Champagne sorbet, Pineapple sorbet, lemon sorbet, raspberry sorbet, and so on.
9. Roti / Roast :
This is the heaviest course in the French Classical Menu and comprises roast poultry, roast game birds and roast game animals. . When these dishes are served they are served with their own accompanying sauce, roast gravy and vegetables. Game chips or roast potatoes are commonly served with roast course. A salad is also served along with the roast
Examples are :
• Roast chicken
• Braised duck
• Roast quail
10. Legumes / Vegetables :
All vegetable preparations come under this course. Vegetables may be served as the main course in a shorter menu.
Examples are :
• Hungarian Asparagus
• Vegetable Au Gratin
11. Salade / Salad :
Various types of salads which are served during this course.
Examples are :
• Salade francaise : – lettuce, tomato, egg, & vinaigrette dressings.
• Salade vert: – Lettuce, watercress, cucumber and green pepper.
12. Buffet Froid / Cold Buffet :
In this course Chilled meat(small) pieces are served.
Examples are :
• Poulet roti : – Roast chicken
• Ham in Parsley Aspic (Jambon Persillé)
• Caneton Roti: – Roast Duck
• Mayonnaise d hommard: – lobster mayonnaise
13. Fromage / Cheese :
There are two types of cheese
1. Cooking- used for cooking not to be served to the directly
2. Table- served t the guest on the table directly.
All types of table cheese – soft, semi hard, hard, and blue veined are included in the course.
Examples are :
• Gorgonzola
• Danish blue
• Brie
14. Entremets / Sweets :
All kinds of sweet preparations, such as soufflés, custards, puddings, bavarois, crepes, ice creams, pastries and so on .. weather hot or cold are included in this course.
Examples are :
• Ananas Flambes au kirsch
• Black forest
• Baked Alaska
15. Savoureux / Savory :
Savoury item served on varying shapes of toast in tartlets(round), in barquettes (oval), in bouchees, a quichelet etc. The term savoury also includes savoury soufflés and stuffed omelettes.
Examples are :
• Angles on horse back
• devils on horse back
• canapé nina
16. Dessert / Cut Fruits & Nuts :
This course comprises fresh fruits and nuts.
17. Boissons / Beverage :
All types of hot or cold beverage, Tea, Coffee etc. are served.

what is the Difference between Lime and Lemon?

Lemons and limes are both very acidic but have slightly different flavors and scents. Lemons have a sour, acidic taste, while a lime has a bitter, acidic taste. Both citrus fruits are frequently used in cooking and cocktails, as well a variety of household products. Lemons and limes are highly acidic citrus fruits. Limes are green, small, and generally more acidic than lemons. Lemons are yellow and larger than limes.

Key difference: The difference between a lemon and a lime is that limes are usually smaller and sweeter than lemons. Also, lemons contain more citric acid and fewer carbohydrates than limes. Both limes and lemons are citrus fruits.

Lime is a citrus fruit, which is green in color. It is sour in taste. It is considered as a great source for Vitamin C. It is used for giving flavor to different foods and beverages. Lime extracts and its essential oils are frequently used in perfumes, cleaning products and aromatherapy. In cooking, lime is valued both for the acidity of its juice and the floral aroma of its zest.

Lemon is an evergreen tree, which has yellow fruits. Not just the fruits, but juice, pulp and peel of the fruit are also used as food. Lemon Juice has more than 5% citric acid, which is responsible for the sour taste of lemon. It is used to make lemonade, soft drinks, and cocktails. It is used in marinades for fishes and meats. It is used in making desserts, marmalades, and lemon liqueur.